Inventory, characterisation and prospection of valuable biomass resources in target areas (North and Centre of Portugal).
In the framework of project Biovino, wine regions of interest were defined, namely Minho, Trás-os-Montes, Douro e Porto, Távora-Varosa, Beira Interior and Dão e Lafões. According to the data of the wine year 2018/2019, the regions Minho and Douro e Porto represented nearly 70% of the total vineyard surface, which is translated into a high wine production in these regions.
In order to catalogue the type of residues produced by winery activities in the North and Centre of Portugal, surveys were made to different entities involved in this economic activity. Since the answers received were scarce and, therefore, they did not enable the drawing of reliable conclusions, it was necessary to perform a broad and complete literature search. By means of this search, it was concluded that wine production generates three types of residues: vine shoots (70%), grape marc (27%) and wine lees (3%). According to Ibero Massa Florestal, each year Portugal produces about 1.75 tons of vine shoots per hectare of vineyard. In the case of grape marc, all its constituents are included, that is to say, grape pulp remains, skins and seeds. In general, vine shoots and grape skins are the residues produced in the largest amounts in the wine regions North and Centre of Portugal.
The classification of wine areas into Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) and Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) allowed observing important variations in the amounts of residues generated for both types of classifications. Residue production is greater in the case of PDO wine in comparison to PGI wine. In addition, most wine production in the North and Centre of Portugal corresponds to red wine, which implies a greater contribution of this type of wine to the production of vine and wine residues, in comparison to white and rosé wines. The districts of Vila Real and Viseu are responsible for most of the residues produced in winery activities in the regions North and Centre, being the municipality of Alijó (district of Vila Real) the greatest producer.
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